character in Adriana Buenos Aires by Macedonio Fernández
character in Borges story, also known as Alt
Fishburn and Hughes: "A fictional name, referring perhaps to the novelist Roberto Arlt who grew up in the rough working-class and compadrito areas west of Buenos Aires, such as Villa Luro, in which so many of the short stories in Doctor Brodie's Report are set. Roberto Arlt is mentioned in the preface." (64)
translator of Beowulf, 1892
Charles W. Kennedy, 1943
Bromfield novel, 1926
William Irish, short story.
Hawthorne short story, 1854
Morris poem, consisting of a prologue and twenty-four tales, 1868-1870
Eliot poem, one of the Four Quartets
city in Michigan where Michigan State University is located
Steinbeck novel, 1952
town in Connecticut
US writer, 1883-1969, author of Enjoyment of Poetry, Enjoyment of Laughter and various books on Marxism
one of many alises of Edward Ostermann, New York gangster, c. 1873-1929
hotel in Aix-les-Bains
Stevenson-Osbourne novel, 1894
heretic, successor of Carpocrates and Cerinthus
river in Spain
Portuguese novelist, 1845-1900, author of A Cidade e as Serras, O Primo Basilio, Os Maias, O Crime do Padre Amaro and other works
Nietzsche work of self-justification, published posthumously in 1908
Small village in the South of Scotland.
William Wordsworth, 1821-22
Argentine writer, 1875-1950
Argentine writer, 1821-1880
British historian, c. 1670-1730, author of histories of Rome and of England
Argentine writer, part of the Boedo group, subject of a 1968 booklet by Leónidas Barletta and others
Argentine writer, 1805-51, author of La cautiva, El matadero, Dogma socialista and other works
German poet and writer, 1792-1854, author of Gespräche mit Goethe
Meister Echkart, German philosopher and mystic, c. 1260-1327
Ecclesiastes in the Bible
Echo, nymph in Greek mythology
street in Buenos Aires
Huidobro poem, 1918
Fishburn and Hughes: In Islam, the time before the Muslim era known as Jalil. The Zahir
Menén Desleal story
Phillpotts study, 1931
Elder or Poetic Edda, formerly attributed to Saemund, sometimes called Edda Poetica and Edda Saemundi
Snorri Sturluson's Prose or Younger Edda, c. 1230, sometimes called Edda Islandorum, Edda Prosaica and Snorra Edda
Jonsson edition, 1888-1890
references to both the Elder and Prose Eddas
British astronomer, 1882-1944, author of The Nature of the Physical World
Argentine writer, b. 1921, friend and collaborator of Borges
garden of paradise in Genesis
Rossetti poem, 1870
British politician, 1897-1977
English king, 944-975
Joseph Wood Crutch study of Poe (1926).
Whitman essay in Specimen Days, 1880
Edinburgh, capital of Scotland
Independent school opened in Scotland in 1824. Stevenson and Michael Innes, among other artists, studied there.
quarterly periodical published from 1802 to 1929
Oedipus, legendary Greek king of Thebes
Oedipus Tyrannos, Sophocles play
Yeats translation. See King Oedipus
beloved of Snorri Sturluson
Parodi: supuesta casa editora creada por Anglada, que habría publicado algunas de sus obras; en su etapa nativista, Carlos Anglada publica en Probeta a poetas de las provincias. En la crónica “Búsqueda”, Bustos informa que Probeta editó también algunos de los manuscritos de Nierenstein Souza. En “Toros” se menciona un escándalo por estafa en el que se vio envuelta la editorial.
brother of West Saxon king Aethelstan
German writer, 1890-1966
Alicia Noailles book, 1970
king of England, here mentioned as a character in Stevenson's New Arabian Nights
Flaubert novel, 1869
Sackville-West novel, 1930
British scholar of China, 1888-1957, compiler of The Dragon Book, London, 1938
US philosopher and theologian, 1703-1758, author of A Careful and Strict Enquiry into the Modern Prevailing Notions of Freedom of Will
Northumbrian king, reigned c. 616-632
Ephesus, Greek city in Asia Minor sacred to Artemis, south of Izmir, Turkey
Fishburn and Hughes: "One of the largest cities of Greek origin in the Roman world, the capital of the Roman province of Asia. The temple of Diana at Ephesus was one of the 'seven wonders of the world'.
Deutsches Requiem: St Paul lived and preached in Ephesus for three years (Acts 18 and 19); subsequently the city was the scene of many acts of Christian persecution.
Ephialtes, Greek mythological figure, demon of nightmare
Work by Ramón Gómez de la Serna, 1929.
character in Eça de Queiroz's Os Maias
Aegean Sea, between Greece and Turkey
translator of The Golden Lotus, 1939
German-born scholar of India, 1842-1918, professor of Sanskrit at the University of Edinburgh
Huevos y Panadero, John Masefield poems, 1936
hero of the Icelandic saga Egla or Egils Saga
Egill Skalla-Grimsson, Icelandic poet and adventurer, c. 910- 90
Icelandic saga about the exploits of Egil, son of Skallagrim
Fishburn and Hughes: "A country in north Africa whose culture has profoundly influenced the growth of western civilisation. Its fertility and prosperity are due to the yearly flooding of the Nile, whose origin was a mystery both to the ancient Egyptians and to the Greeks because, unlike other rivers known to them, it flowed from south to north. Its Egyptian name was Ar or Aur meaning black (the colour of its mud).
Virgil bucolic poems
Goethe drama, 1788
British magazine, 1914-1919
George Meredith novel, 1879
character in Borges story
Peruvian poet and painter, 1882-1942, author of Simbólicas and other works
Ellery Queen novel, 1932
Darío poem in El canto errante, 1907
Sudermann play, 1889-1891
Austrian expressionist poet, 1886-1950
German scientist, 1854-1915
Argentine artist, 1895-1957, here mentioned for his illustrations for a César Tiempo book, brother of the playwright Samuel Eichelbaum
Dickson Carr, novel, 1934.
Werfel poems, 1915
character in Borges story
Spoerri study of Dante, 1946
Hauptmann play, 1891
German physicist, 1879-1955
Norwegian king of Northumbria, son of Harald Harfagar, died in England about 954, subject of the Eiriksmal
Eirikr Oddsson, 12th century Icelandic historian, author of the Hryggjarstykki, one of the sources of Snorri's Heimskringla
saga of Eric the Red
Mulhouse engineer, 1914-41, character in Bustos Domecq story
US general and president, 1890-1969
Austrian-born US chemist and oil executive, 1880-1963, author of Why Was Lincoln Murdered?, 1937
Russian film director, 1898-1948, director of Potemkin, October, Ivan the Terrible and other works
Jarnés book of essays, 1927
Lugones lecture, 1915
Fishburn and Hughes: The army of General San Martín which in January 1817 crossed the Andes from Mendoza, a province in western Argentina, to Chile. Made up of two divisions, it consisted of 4,000 soldiers, 1,400 auxiliaries, 2,400 animals, 18 cannon and other artillery. After the crossing, which took eighteen days, the army defeated the Royalist forces at the battle of Chacabuco. The Elderly Lady
Ekkehard, German monk and poet, d. 973, author of the Waltharius
Poem by Juan Cruz Varela.
Fishburn and Hughes: The name applied to several military operations in North Africa in World War II, but more specifically to the decisive British battle under Montgomery on 4 November 1942 which resulted in Germany's retreat. Deutsches Requiem
Excerpt from Opera (1927) by Jean Cocteau.
Short story by Argentine writer Adolfo Bioy Casares (1914-1999) published in El lado de la sombra (1962).
Buenos Aires neighborhood
Excerpt from The Dream of the Red Chamber by Tsao Hsue-Kin.
Brand of cider
Parodi: “un Champagne El Gaitero”: a pesar de la presentación que hace Montenegro de esta bebida, ‘El Gaitero’ es una conocida y popular marca de sidra.
Peter the Great. Royal title given to Peter I of Russia
Film by René Mugica, 1962, based on the Borges's story.
Collection of short stories by Adolfo Bioy Casares, 1962
Lugones verses from the poem Oceánida
Book by Borges
Compilations of uruguayan poetry (1834)
Book written by Martiniano Leguizamón
river in Czechoslovakia and Germany
part of the city of Wuppertal, Germany
Elblag, city now in Poland
ancient Greek city in Italy
Fishburn and Hughes: A term derived from the school of philosophy founded in the fifth century BC by Parmenides of Elea, whose favourite pupil was Zeno. Opposing Heraclitus, and foreshadowing the idealism of Berkeley, the Eleatics argued against belief in the reality of motion and the plurality of things which would involve changes in the state of 'being'. They held that 'being' was necessarily one and unchanged, while individual things and movement were an illusion. Their teaching methods were based on a system of paradoxes or proofs 'ad absurdum', such as the flying arrow which passes through a series of points in which it is static and the race between Achilles and the tortoise to which Borges frequently refers. See Aporias, Contest with the tortoise. Tlön, Uqbar, Orbis Tertius
Eleazar ben Jehudah, rabbi of Worms, d. c.1225, author of the Sefer Rokeah
Greek mythological princess of Mycenae, daughter of Agamemnon
white elephant of Buddhist legend
Elephantis, fl. 1st century BC, Greek female author of erotica
Parodi: tal vez el pseudónimo de una poetisa de origen griego, autora de uno de los primeros tratados conocidos sobre el arte del amor. El historiador latino Suetonio (c.70−140) y el poeta latino Marcial (40-104) mencionan sus obras, lo que permite conjeturar la fecha en que las compuso.
poem from Alfonso Reyes’s book Pausa, 1926
Translation of Thomas Gray's Elegy by José Antonio Miralla (1823).
Euclid treatise on geometry and theory of numbers, Στοιχεῖα, about 300 B.C.
Greek mythological figure, daughter of Zeus and Leda, sometimes Helena de Troya
Marx, 1847, The Poverty of Philosophy, response to Proudhon's La Philosophie de la misère
Edgar Allan Poe story, 1842
Frank Melland book on elephants, 1938
town northeast of Athens in Attica, center of ancient Greek mystery cult
son of Elfric, mentioned in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
Alderman Elfric, mentioned in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle for warning the enemy
Pseudonym used by Charles Lamb
Johannes Baptista Elianus, d. 1589, supposed author of Mohommedis imposturae"
angel who fights the Antichrist in the Muspilli
in the Bible, prophet who fought the idolatry of Jezabel and Ahab
Fishburn and Huhghes: "Judaism's greatest prophet, regarded as the champion of monotheism and the protector of its moral law from the corrupt worship of Baal.
Three Versions of Judas: refers to the episode on Mount Horeb when Elijah, called by God, covered his face: 'And it was so, when Elijah heard it, that he wrapped his face in his mantle, and went out and stood in the entering of the cave' (I Kings 19:13)." (65)
character in the book of Job
Anglo-American poet and critic, 1888-1965, author of The Waste Land, Four Quartets, Tradition and the Individual Talent, Murder in the Cathedral and other works
Fishburn and Hughes: "An English poet and critic, born in USA. Eliot was the author of 'The Waste Land' (1922), an allegorical poem expressing man's need for salvation, and Four Quartets (1936-42), a series of poems evincing a preoccupation, shared by Borges, with time, individuality and the place of man in history.
The Immortal, CF 195: refers to Eliot's allusive vocabulary and deliberate anachronisms introduced 'to forge an appearance of eternity' (Nota sobre Walt Whitman, Disc. 122).
The Approach to Al-Mu’tasim CF 86: Eliot's work as a literary critic was equally important. Borges admired his criticism of the Elizabethans and shared his classical approach. Borges's seminal essay 'Kafka and his Precursors' (TL 363), in which he argues that a writer influences not only the future but also the past, is based on ideas expressed by Eliot in 'Tradition and Individual Talent'." (65)
Kirovograd, city in the Ukraine, site of pograms in 1881 and 1882
Bohemian queen, 1596-1662, wife of Frederick V
Argentine lawyer and statesman, foreign minister under Mitre, 1822-87
George Sand, 1859, about her affair with Musset
American magazine specializing in crime fiction first launched in 1941.
British psychologist and writer, 1859-1939, author of Studies in the Psychology of Sex, The Soul of Spain, Affirmations and other works
British specialist on Celtic and Norse mythology, 1914-2006, author of The Road to Hell, Pagan Scandinavia and numerous other works
literary critic active in the first decades of the twentieth century, author of Wilkie Collins, Le Fanu and Others, 1931
Fishburn and Hughes: A port in County Roscommon, Connaught, some eighty miles north west of Dublin; the diocese is said to have been founded by St Patrick. The area is famous for its caves and ancient burial grounds traditionally associated with the kings of Connaught. The Shape of the Sword
pseudonym of Bocage
Lewis novel, 1927
Lugones book on the Argentine paleontologist, 1915
Borges book of poems and short prose, 1969
plural name of the one god in Hebrew
characters in Wells's The Time Machine, 1895
French nun and writer, c.1101-1164, called Helowys in Chaucer
village in County Roscommon, Ireland
Fishburn and Hughes: "A port in County Roscommon, Connaught, some eighty miles north west of Dublin; the diocese is said to have been founded by St Patrick. The area is famous for its caves and ancient burial grounds traditionally associated with the kings of Connaught." (65)
British scholar of Anglo-Saxon England, 1721-1809
Swedish doctor, character in Horacio Quiroga's story Los destiladores de naranja, also a character in the film Prisioneros de la tierra by Soffici
translator of Historia Danica in 1905
pseudonym of Eugène Émile Paul Grindel, French poet, 1895-1952
French writer and poet, 1895-1952
Fishburn and Hughes: In Greek mythology the destination of heroes to whom the Gods had granted immortality. The Inmortal
pseudonym of Francisco Manuel do Nascimento
Carlos Reyles novel, 1922
Argentine publishing house created in 1939. Since 2002 is part of publishing group Planeta.
Van Wyck Brooks critical study, 1927
US poet and philosopher, 1803-82, author of Representative Men, The American Scholar, Brahma, Self-Reliance, History and numerous other works
Fishburn and Hughes: "An American poet and essayist who travelled to Europe in 1847-8, where he met Carlyle. He became one of the major exponents of the New England 'Transcendental School'. The philosophy of the movement, which had strong mystical and religious undertones, operated on him as a liberating force. It was based on the superiority of insight over logic, the unity of nature and the innate goodness of man. Many of Emerson's poems and essays elaborate the ideology of transcendentalism, as do the articles which he contributed to The Dial which he founded in 1840 as an organ of the movement.
The Other Death, CF 263; 226: 'The Past', which first appeared in the collection May-Day and Other Pieces (1867), begins with the lines: 'The debt is paid, / The verdict said', a statement that no power can alter what has been, for reality is irrevocable: 'Not the Gods can shake the past, nor the devil can finish what is packed / Alter or mend eternal Fact.'
The dry remark of the character Patricio Gannon that Spanish literature is so boring that 'it makes Emerson quite superfluous' does not reflect Borges's own opinion. Borges dedicated a poem to Emerson, declaring how vitally present Emerson's name remained to him and attributing to Emerson a nostalgia for a life 'not lived' which reflects Borges's own regrets (Sel. Poems, 189)." (66)
French critic, author of works on Max Jacob
Ferreira de Castro, 1928
Rousseau book on education, 1762
house of prostitution in Buenos Aires frequented by Paco Antuñano y Pons
character in Phillpotts's Monkshood
Borges story, 1948
Lugones poem in Los crepúsculos del jardín
Greek philosopher, poet, statesman and religious teacher, c. 490-430, author of On Nature, Purifications and other works, mostly lost; Borges often calls him "Empédocles de Agrigento"
Huang Di, legendary first emperor of China, reigned 2696-c. 2600
Parodi: figura mitológica; uno de los Cinco Emperadores a los que se atribuye el origen de la civilización china.
Yu Di, ruler of Heaven in Chinese folk culture
O'Neill play, 1920
E. R. Huc, 1854.
Chinese encyclopedia discussed in El idioma analítico de John Wilkins
Lugones poem in Los crepúsculos del jardín
Text by Bernardo de Monteagudo.
Carriego poem in Las misas herejes
Akutagawa, short story.
Piñera short story, from Cuentos fríos (1956).
Anglada travel book, 1923
Fragment from the Miscellanies (1696), work by John Aubrey (1626-1697).
Daniel Ibarra book of sonnets, 1983
Carriego poem in Las misas herejes
the hidden or infinite God, according to the Zohar
Fishburn and Hughes: "Hebrew for 'endless': a Cabbalistic term designating the impersonal and ineffable nature of God before his manifestation in the creation of the world. The negative emphasis of the term (en, 'nothing'; sof, 'end') seeks to convey the idea that God, as he existed before Creation, was unknowable to man, who was unable to express his existence. Any actual name would imply a limitation on the concept of God and therefore be an impossibility; the negative signifies a refusal to impose any boundaries upon the designation of God. This concept of a hidden God, 'that which is not conceivable by thinking', was a factor leading to the heretical belief in a duality between the impersonal and unfathomable God and the personal Demiurge of Creation which lay at the root of Gnosticism." (66)
Nicolás Cócaro poems with Borges preface, 195
poem from Julio Molina Vedia’s book Señales
poem from Nydia Lamarque’s book Telarañas, 1925
first line of Estanislao del Campo's Fausto
don Zalduendo's horse market
Montaner y Simon, see Diccionario enciclopédico hispanoamericano
Rasa'il ikhwan as-safa' wa khillan al-wafa, collection associated with the 10th century Brethren of Purity, Ikhwan al-Safa
the Treccani encyclopedia, 35 volume set first published from 1925 to 1936
encyclopedia published in Santiago, Chile, in 2074, of which we only have the article on Borges
the French encyclopédistes, group of Enlightenment writers around Diderot and D'Alambert
Erasmus satire in praise of folly, 1509
José Régio poems, 1945
poem by August Stramm, from the book Du Liebesgedichte, 1919
Wally Zenner book, 1931
Borges poem, 1970
According to the Antología de la literatura fantástica and Cuentos breves y extraordinarios short story from the T’ang Dinasty.
the eleventh edition of 1910-1911 is most frequently cited by Borges
Fishburn and Hughes: "Borges, attracted to the claim that encyclopaedias embrace the totality of human knowledge, as the word implies, owned a set of the eleventh edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica in 29 volumes (1910-11), the last edition to have been published in Britain. The tenth edition (1902-3), said in Tlön, Uqbar, Orbis Tertius' to be the original of the piratical Anglo-American Cyclopaedia, is a reprint of the 24 volumes of the ninth edition plus 11 supplementary volumes, one containing new maps and one a comprehensive index to the whole work. The 20 volumes mentioned as circulating in the USA in about 1824 are probably the sixth edition of 1823. In 1824 these were reprinted with six supplementary volumes." (66)
Aldous Huxley, 1937
13 vols., published by Hastings from 1908 to 1927
De Vore, 1947
encyclopedia edited by Anatole de Monzie
Graham Greene, novel, 1951.
Conrad novella, 1902
Endymion, beautiful young man of Greek myth
the Enneads of Plotinus, c.300
Aeneas, Roman mythological hero, protagonist of Virgil's Aeneid
Virgil's Aeneid, written from 26 to 19 B.C.
Fishburn and Hughes: "The Roman national epic written by Virgil: it narrates the wanderings of the Trojan prince Aeneas after the destruction of Troy and his arrival in Latium. Virgil's intention was to show the divine origins of Rome and of the Emperor Augustus as a descendant of Aeneas, the son of Venus. See too The Immortal, CF 186: the line 'naked on the unknown sand' refers to the words spoken by Aeneas in anguish at the death of his friend the helmsman Palinurus: 'nudus in ignota, Palinure, iacebis arena' (5.871). Softened by the prayers of Venus, Neptune had at last agreed to allow the progress of the Trojan fleet and had promised a calm sea. But a victim was required: Palinurus was tempted into sleep and thrown into the water, later to be washed up on the shores of Italy." (3-4)
cook in Bustos Domecq story
Hladik verse drama
El enemigo, Wyndham Lewis magazine, 3 issues, 1927-29
Jean-Paul Vaillant, 1935
Cocteau, novel, 1929.
Barbusse novel, 1908
Engadin, valley in Switzerland
character in Bustos Domecq story
German social scientist, 1820-1895
Graham Greene, novel, 1935.
De Quincey essay
series of literary biographies directed by Leslie Stephen
collection of essays by Graham Greene and others, 1936
Swedish theologian, adversary of Nils Runeberg, character in Borges story
Borges essay on Dante, perhaps "El ultimo viaje de Ulises," first published in 1948 and included in Nueve ensayos dantescos
figure in Blake's prophetic books, the giver of a rigid morality
Eastman book, 1936
character in the Epic of Gilgamesh, Sumerian mythic hero
Fishburn and Hughes: A province in eastern Argentina on the border with Uruguay. Because of its strategic position near Buenos Aires and across the river from Uruguay, Entre Ríos has played an important part in the history of both countries. During the years of Federalism it was ruled by Urquiza, the caudillo who first invaded Uruguay under the orders of Rosas but later led the uprising that brought about Rosas's defeat. Entre Ríos played a seminal part in the eventual unification of the provinces. Entre Ríos was often involved in Uruguayan battles, and it is realistic to suppose that its men would probably have fought in the revolution of Aparicio Saravia. See India Muerta. The Other Death
Quintus Ennius, Latin poet, 239-169, author of Annalium
Enobarb, character in Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra
Short story by Max Beerbohm, published in Seven Men (1919).
Cummings memoir of internment camp in wartime France, 1922
Henry the First, English king, 1068-1135
Henry the Second, 1154-1189, English king at the time of Layomon
Henry the Fifth, English king, 1386-1422, subject of a Shakespeare play written about 1599
Main work of argentine writer Gregorio Funes (1817).
Menéndez y Pelayo, 1892
Rodolfo Wilcock’s book, 1945.
Murena’s book of essays, 1963.
port city near La Plata
Nordau essay on degeneration, 1892
Jacobo Sureda poem
Bustos Domecq, 1934
province in north central Argentina
street in Buenos Aires
Avenue in the city of Buenos Aires
Groussac essay in El viaje intelectual
Cervantes short plays, 1615
tango by Rosendo Cayetano Mendizábal, 1897
title poem of book by Silvina Ocampo, 1942
Anthony Berkeley, short story.
king of the East Goths, fl. 350- 376, mentioned in the Widsith and Deor
Ker study, 1896
Norris trilogy of novels: The Octopus, 1901, The Pit, 1903, and The Wolf, which was never written
Epicharmus, Sicilian writer of comedy, c. 530-c. 440
Epictetus, Greek Stoic philosopher, c. 55-c. 135
Fishburn and Hughes: "A Stoic philosopher and moralist. Epictetus left no written work, but his teachings were recorded by his pupil, the historian Flavius Arrianus (Arrian). He preached a gospel of inner freedom attainable by contentment and forbearance and a sense of detachment from all that lies beyond one's reach." (67)
Epicurus, Greek philosopher, 341-270
Epidaurus or Epidhavros, Greek village where there is a well-preserved ancient theater
Epidemia Goncourt, Pierre Hamp
Greek seer and philosopher-poet, Ἐπιμενίδης, 6th century B.C.
Fishburn and Hughes: An Epistle traditionally attributed to St Paul, though its authorship is now disputed. It seeks to demonstrate the superiority of Christianity to Judaism. The Theologians: in chapter 9 the repeated yearly sacrifices of the high priest in accordance with the Old Covenant are contrasted with Christ's atonement which is eternal: 'So Christ was once offered to bear the sins of many; and unto them that look for him shall he appear a second time without sin unto salvation' (9:28). The Theologians
Browning poem in Men and Women, 1855
Dante letter on the Commedia
Menéndez y Pelayo poem
Quevedo, Epístola Satírica y Censoria contra las costumbres presentes de los castellanos escrita al Conde-Duque de Olivares
Prester John letter, sent to Emanuel of Constantinople in 1165, famous source of geographic speculation that led to European expansion
anonymous 17th century Spanish poem, now attributed to Andrés Fernández de Andrada
Seneca, Epístolas a Lucilio
Pliny the Younger
poem from Alfonso Reyes’s book Pausa
poem by H. von Stummer, from the book Leidenschaftliche Plakate, 1919
poem by Eliodoro Puche
Echidna, Greek monster
History about equestry written by Justo P. Saenz
soldier whose dream is discussed in the tenth book of Plato's Republic
Desiderius Erasmus, Dutch philosopher and writer, 1466-1536, author of Encomium Moriae, Novum Instrumentum, Enchiridion Militis Christiani and other works
muse of love poetry
Karl Ritter work on geography and history, 2 vols., 1817-1818, with an expanded second edition, 1822-1858
Erebus, mythological region of darkness separating hell from earth
Butler satirical romance, 1872
Danish Hebrew scholar, author of Christelige Dogmatik
correspondent of Herbert Ashe in Borges story
Fishburn and Hughes: A fictional character who appears in several stories: in Tlon, Uqbar, Orbis Tertius as Gunnar Erfjord, one of the inventors of Tlön; in Three Versions of Judas as Erik Erfjord, a Danish Hebraicist; and in The Theologians simply as Erfjord, a Christian theologist. The surname coincides with that of Norah Lange’s mother, and Borges was distantly related to her family. See Williamson, 99 Tlön, Uqbar, Orbis Tertius; Three Versions of Judas; The Theologians
character in Borges story
Exito, Feuchtwanger novel, 1930
Erik Grupson, bishop of Greenland
Eric or Eirik the Red, Norwegian discoverer and settler of Greenland
Johannes Scotus Erigena, Irish theologian, c. 815-877, author of De Divisione Naturae
country to the north of Ethiopia
German Egyptologist, 1854-1937, author of Neuägyptische Grammatik and other works
English town on the Severn where Layomon lived
putative author of the Chronique d'Ernoul, a history of the kingdom of Jerusalem from its foundation to 1229
German artist, 1891-1976
Erostratus, who set fire to the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus in order to become famous
Irish writer, 1883-1971
city in eastern Turkey
mountain range that forms boundary between Bohemia (Czech Republic) and Saxony (Germany)
poem from Carlos Vega’s book Campo
town in Calabria in northern Spain, mentioned in poem by Baldomero Fernández Moreno
poetry of the Icelandic skalds
skalds, Icelandic hermetic poets
Joseph Justus Scaliger, Italian Renaissance scholar, 1504-1609, author of De Emendatione Temporum, Thesaurus Temporum and other works
Julius Caesar Scaliger, Italian critic and physician, 1484-1558, author of Exercitationes and other works
Municipality located in the north part of the province of Toledo, Spain.
Murena’s poetry book, 1959.
French art historian and literary critic, 1882-1971, author of books on El Greco, Matisse, Daumier, Hugo
Scylla, a sea-monster that lives in a cave opposite Charybdis in the Odyssey
Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus Major, Roman general and statesman, 236-183
Scythians, ancient people of Iran
Scotland or Caledonia
José Rodrigues Miguéis, 1960
Girondo poem in Calcomanías
Scorpio, the zodiac sign
pseud. of Bustos Domecq
Borges story in El Aleph, 1949
perhaps Ernesto Escudero, a prominent physician of Buenos Aires, b. 1909
Parodi: sólo mencionado en “Limardo”, posiblemente un médico o un abogado.
Ecuadoran poet and diplomat, 1903-1971
Asclepius or Aesculapius, Greek hero and god of healing
Lugones definition of the tango, in El payador
supposed Homeric name for the Nile river, though Homer calls the Nile the Aegyptos; there is a Mysian river called Aesepus in Hesiod
sphinx, mythological monster with human head and the body of a lion
Theban sphinx, the sphinx which ravaged Thebes until killed by Oedipus
hotel in Rekjavik
street in Buenos Aires
magician of Uqbar, perhaps based on Smerdis, Persian king mentioned by Ctesias, Xenophon, Aeschylus and others
Smyrna, city in Turkey, now Izmir
Aesop, Greek teller of fables, d. c. 564 B. C.
Silvina Ocampo book of poems, 1948
Bonfanti work, plagiarized from a manuscript by Ricardo Sangiacomo
Manuel Peyrou story and book of the same name, 1944, with 1983 Borges preface
Cervantes exemplary novel
Borges story in Historia universal de la infamia, 1935
French author of patriotic and historical novels, 1864-1944
Ortega y Gasset collection of essays, 1916-1928
here, reference to the Espíritu Santo
Gorki novel, 1936, part of the four-volume series The Life of Klim Sangin
Rafael Alberto Arrieta book, 1912
Borges essay in Otras inquisiciones
Borges story in El libro de arena
Borges story, 1950
Spanish novelist and poet, 1550-1624, author of Marcos de Obregon
Uruguayan writer, 1901-1973, author of Raza ciega and other works
character in Borges story
character in Borges-Bioy filmscript
character in Borges-Bioy filmscript
Argentine artist, 1912-2006, part of the Arte Concreto-Invención group
Espion chinois; ou, l'envoye secret de la cour de Pekin pour examiner l'etat present de l'Europe, L'
Ange Goudart work, 1765, which Borges once refers to as El descubrimiento de Europa por los chinos
Parodi: los seis volúmenes de El espión chino o el enviado secreto de la corte de Pekín, para examinar la situación actual de Europa. Traducido del chino, fueron publicados en forma anónima en 1764. Su autor, Pierre Ange de Goudar (1708−1791), fue un aventurero, agente secreto del gobierno francés, estafador, tahúr, proxeneta, periodista y escritor de fama, autor de más de 500 obras de diversos géneros, que incluyen panfletos filosóficos y tratados de economía política. Escribió varias obras en que agentes secretos de diversos países comentan y critican las costumbres que observan. El espión chino contiene las supuestas cartas del Mandarín Cham-pi-pi a diversas autoridades de la China; con tono humorístico, ejerce la crítica satírica y propone cambios sociales y políticos. Si bien no se trata de literatura erótica como los demás títulos que se mencionan en este pasaje de “Signo”, El espión chino fue prohibido en Inglaterra por atentar contra la moral.
the spirit, sometimes Espíritu Santo
Anglada work, retracting Carne de salón, 1914
Parodi: según Formento, Anglada habría publicado esta novela en 1914, como retractación de Carne de salón.
Petit de Murat poem
La esperanza, Malraux, 1938
street in Buenos Aires
Julien Françon, 1938
French arts journal, 1920-1925
Spanish poet, 1808-42, author of El estudiante de Salamanca
Argentine book series of introductions to different topics for popular audiences, published by Editorial Columba
book by Osvaldo Horacio Dondo, 1927
Aeschylus, Greek tragic poet, 525-456
Eskimos, called Skraelings by the Norsemen
Gibbon essay, written in French, 1761
Bergson treatise, 1888
Montaigne essays, 1580-1595
John Florio translation of Montaigne´s work.
Bacon essays, 1597
Emerson collections of essays, 1841 and 1844
collection of Wilde essays
Matthew Arnold essays, 1865 and 1888
Lang essay collection, 1891
Phillpotts, essays, 1931.
English earl, c. 1566-1601
soccer team and stadium in Buenos Aires
Lugones political work, 1932
imaginary South American country in Borges story
Fishburn and Hughes: "The 'occidental province' of the imaginary state of Costaguana in which Conrad set his novel Nostromo (1917). The province was said to be the stronghold of the Blanco Party, to which the President-Dictator of the country belonged. See Avellanos, Golfo Plácido, Higuerota, José Korzeniovski, Sulaco." (68)
the countries of the River Plate region, now Uruguay, Paraguay and Argentina
United States of America, sometimes called América del Norte or Norteamérica
Lugones poem in Poemas solariegos
Lugones story in Las fuerzas extrañas
Excerpt from Moralia by Plutarch.
St. Stephen, the first Christian martyr, stoned to death in Jerusalem
mentioned in Bustos Domecq story
critical work by Francisco Piñero, c. 1923
André Ferran study, 1933
manure, god of the Yahoos in Borges story
Styx, mythical river in hell
Stockholm, capital of Sweden
Uruguayan-Argentine military leader in the wars of independence, 1790-1829, founder of Bahía Blanca
poem from Baldomero Fernández Moreno’s book Aldea española, 1925
Strabo, Greek historian and geographer, 64 B. C.-c. 21 A. D., author of Historical Sketches and Geography, Γεωγραφικά
Mexican writer, 1887-1937
Argentine writer and politician, 1842-94
Argentine writer and jurist, friend of Groussac's, author of Nuestras relaciones con la Iglesia
Strasbourg, capital of Alsace in France
Lugones poem in El libro fiel
bar and house of prostitution in Borges story
Peyrou’s novel, 1948.
Mary Stuart, queen of Scotland, 1542-67
Espronceda verse narrative, 1836-37
Study written by Vicente Forte.
Menéndez y Pelayo study, 1905
projected Borges book
Excerpt from Japanische Literatur. Geschichte und Auswahl von den Anfängen bis zur neusten Zeit by Paul Adler and Michael Revon (1926).
Argentine writer, 1915-1973, wrote on gauchesque poetry and similar topics, author of Campo de Buenos Aires, 1948
Roger Martin du Gard novel, 1937
the ether in Ptolemaic cosmology
Forster collection of stories, 1928
Blanqui work on astrology, 1872
doctrine of the Eternal Return
Aethelred the Unready, English king, 979-1016
posthumous collection of Stevenson essays
Ruskin lectures on crystallography, 1866
Spinoza work published soon after his death, Ethica Ordine Geometrico Demonstrata, 1677
French literary critic, 1909-2002
Ethiopia or Abyssinia
volcano in Sicily
ancient region of Italy, home of the Etruscans
Elías Metchnikoff work (1903).
German philosopher, 1846-1926, winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1908
Euclid, Greek mathematician, c. 300 B. C., author of the Elements and other works
Fishburn and Hughes: "A Greek mathematician from Alexandria who systematised contemporary mathematical knowledge. His treatise on geometry, The Elements, has remained the pre-eminent elementary geometry textbook for two thousand years. Such was Euclid's influence that until the beginning of the twentieth century geometry was referred to in British schools simply as 'Euclid'.
ancient city, perhaps in the southern Balkans, mentioned in Jordanes's history of the Goths
Eudemus of Rhodes, Greek philosopher, fl. c.350-300
Euphorbus, a Dardanian warrior in Greek mythology; Pythagoras said he was Euphorbus in a previous incarnation
Fishburn and Hughes: "A Trojan hero who, when he was killed by Menelaus, then dedicated his shield in the temple of Hera in Argos (Iliad 17.45ft).
The Lottery in Babylon: to prove his theory of metempsychosis, or reincarnation, Pythagoras, who claimed to have been Euphorbus in a previous life, took down the shield from the temple wall and pointed to the name inscribed on the back (Horace, Odes 1.28.11).
The Theologians: no record has been found of a heretic called Euphorbus burnt at the stake. In the light of Pythagoras' statement, the name could have been deliberately chosen to reinforce the concept of people and events returning through time, as believed by 'the heretics of the wheel'." (68)
prophet of the Eternal Return in Borges story; the name is surely drawn from Euphorbus the Dardanian warrior
Euphrates river in Mesopotamia
Excerpt from Ben Ionsiana (circa 1619).
Furies in Greek mythology, here characters in T. S. Eliot's play The Family Reunion, 1939
character from Homer's Odyssey, in charge of the king’s pigs in Ithaca
FitzGerald dialogue on education, 1851
Greek tragic poet, c. 485-407
street in Buenos Aires
Papini’s work, 1918.
Liddell Hart, 1937
Eusebius of Caesarea, Palestinian bishop, theologian and historian, d. c. 342, author of an Ecclesiastical History
Chicago music magazine edited by Theodore Dreiser, 1895-97
first woman in the Bible, wife of Adam
Eden Phillpotts, 1911
Otfried religious epic, completed c. 870
Longfellow poem, 1847
Borges story in El informe de Brodie
four Gospels in the New Testament
Otfried, see Evangelienbuch
Apocrypha, books of the Bible that were rejected from the Biblical canon
Biblical evangelists, Matthew, Mark, Luke and John
US businesswoman associated with Gervasio Montenegro in an enterprise exporting women from Buenos Aires to Salt Lake City
British literary critic, 1899-1982, author of A Short History of English Literature
British Orientalist, 1878-1965, author of works on Celtic fairy tales, yoga and other subjects, and editor of the Tibetan Book of the Dead
Borges study, 1930
poem by Juan Vidal Martínez
Novel by Villiers de L'Isle-Adam, 1886.
magazine of the 1920s
Chesterton history of humanity, 1925
15th century English morality play, of Dutch origin
Book series known for cheap editions of classics, founded in 1906
Wilkie Collins, 1886
Vilaseco poem, 1947
German novelist, 1871-1943, author of Alraune, Vampir and other works
Fishburn and Hughes: 'You can judge a lion from its claw': a Latin phrase meaning that from the sample you can judge the whole. Tlön, Uqbar, Orbis Tertius
town mentioned in song in Borges-Bioy filmscript
Yarmolinsky treatise on the English mystic Robert Fludd
Borges story, 1941
Richard Hull novel, 1938
A literary text written by Lucio V Mansilla. It was publisehd in 1870 on the newspaper La Tribuna
Léon Bloy, 1902-1912
Fishburn and Hughes: Twelve moral tales on various themes by Cervantes published in 1613. Pierre Menard, Author of the Quixote
poem from Julio Silva’s book Oriental
important manuscript of Anglo-Saxon poetry
El desterrado, Walpole story
Joyce's play, 1918.
plateau in Somersetshire and Devonshire, England
Biblical book of Exodus
Old English poem in the Junius Manuscript, formerly attributed to Caedmon
Supposed publishing house
Parodi: supuesta editorial de Himnos para millonarios. En Argentina, existe la institución de los “Exploradores Argentinos de Don Bosco”, creada en 1915, con el objetivo de ofrecer a los jóvenes actividades de campismo y contacto con la naturaleza. No extendieron su acción a la impresión de libros.
La experiencia poética, Rolland de Renéville, 1938
Dunne study, 1927
Silvina Ocampo’s short story from Las invitadas
Anthology of Argentine poetry compiled by Pedro Juan Vignale and César Tiempo, 1927
Literary study made by Julio J. Casal
Fray Luis de León translation of and commentary on Job
catalogue published by the Goethe Institute in Buenos Aires, 1968, with Borges preface
Parodi: la futura exposición de Palermo”: referencia a la Exposición Rural, una exhibición agrícola y ganadera que, desde 1886, se celebra todos los años en el mes de julio en Palermo, en un amplio predio ubicado frente a la Plaza Italia, inaugurado en 1878. La exhibición es organizada por la Sociedad Rural Argentina, la agrupación de los grandes hacendados y terratenientes del país. Es mencionada también en “Naturalismo” §10.
Herrera y Reissig book of sonnets, 1904-07
poem by Wilhelm Klemm, from the book Traumschutt, 1920
William Shand, 1978
William Shand book, 1978
Paul Morand stories, 1936
Ojo de Alá, Kipling story, 1926
line from Milton's Samson Agonistes, used by Aldous Huxley as the title of the novel Eyeless in Gaza
Icelandic poet, author of the Hakonarmal
international airport serving Buenos Aires
Hezekiah, Biblical king of Judah
Biblical book of Ezekiel
Fishburn and Hughes: "The book of Ezekiel is the most mystical of the Old Testament books of prophecy. Ezekiel was deported by Nebuchadnezzar from Jerusalem to Babylon in 597, where he prophesied the redemption of the Jewish people from captivity. He preached the universality of God, insisting that the divine presence was confined neither to the Temple nor to Jerusalem. More than any other of the prophets, Ezekiel makes vivid use of symbolism; vision and ecstasy are his hallmarks.
The Aleph, CF 282: 'the vision of the four wheels' which is taken from Ezekiel 1:5-11, is a remarkable passage in that it does not seek to describe God directly but is a metaphor of the unfathomable appearance of his likeness. This powerful image later became the basis of a form of Jewish mysticism (Merkabah) concerned with speculations on the appearance of God on the Throne, and was also used in Christian iconography." (69)
Ezekiel, Biblical prophet
town east of Buenos Aires near Quilmes