designation in Argentine law for someone whose identity is unknown
Fishburn and Hughes: An influential French literary magazine founded in 1909 by a group of distinguished writers and actors. Its aim was to re-examine artistic and intellectual values in the light of recent literary movements. It published the work of a number of as yet unknown authors, such as Kafka and Gide, and introduced leading foreign writers. It ceased publication during World War I and again between 1943 and 1953. 64 Pierre Menard, Author of the Quixote: the January 1928 number of the NRF contained passages by Valéry, Proust and other famous authors. Tlön, Uqbar, Orbis Tertius; Pierre Menard, Author of the Quixote
Russian-American novelist and lepidopterist, 1899-1977
Fishburn and Hughes: The name of three kings of Babylon, the most famous being Nebuchadnezzar II (c.630-562 BC) who drove the Egyptians out of Asia and annexed Syria to Babylon. Apart from being a brilliant commander, Nebuchadnezzar II patronised the arts throughout his empire and made Babylon one of the 'wonders of the world'. CF 204: the 'Nabucodonosors of Nitria' who 'grazed like oxen and their hair grew like an eagle's' is an allusion to the story of Nebuchadnezzar's second dream: of a tree reduced to a stump, presaging the divine punishment of his arrogance by madness. The quotation stems from Daniel 4:33 and tells of the fulfilment of the prophecy of the king's downfall: 'he was driven from men, and did eat grass as oxen, and his body was wet with the dew of the heaven, till his hair grew like eagles' feathers, and his nails like birds' claws.' The Theologians
Gálvez novel about prostitution, 1919
Klabund Orientalist poems on China, loosely based on Edward Fitzgerald, 1915
Aus dem Nachlass der Achtziger Jahre, Nietzsche's Der Wille zur Macht
Godel book of poems, 1932
early name for the Buenos Aires newspaper La Nación
Buenos Aires newspaper, founded by Bartolomé Mitre in 1870
Parodi: diario fundado por Bartolomé Mitre (1821-1906) en 1870 que sigue publicándose. Bartolomé Mitre fue un político, militar, historiador, escritor y periodista argentino que ejerció la presidencia de la República entre 1862 y 1868. Hacia la época de la escritura de Crónicas, el precio del diario era de 50 centavos.
Borges essay, 1922
shah of Iran, 1688-1747
Fishburn and Hughes: A robber chieftain who rose to become ruler of Persia in 1736. No direct information on the astrolabe has been found, though there may be a tenuous association with the legend that during his invasion of India Nadir Shah captured the Koh-inoor diamond. The Zahir
battlefield where the forces of López Jordán were defeated in 1871, near Goya, Entre Ríos
Indian king converted to Buddhism
Buddhist play in Sanskrit, whose title means "The Joy of the Serpents"
Buddhist monk to whom were revealed the arcane doctrines of Mahayana Buddhism
Buddhist monk who converted Menandro, Bactrian king, according to the Milinda Panho
death ship in Scandinavian mythology
tango by Angel Greco
Parodi: tango de Ángel Greco, estrenado en 1933.
Borges work, never written but mentioned in "El Aleph"
Jean Giono, 1930, reissued in 1938
town in Bihar, India
Argentine writer, 1898-1971
Portuguese physician and writer, 1919-1989
leader of the Araucanian Indians in Patagonia, surrendered in 1883 to the Argentine army
fortified town in Belgium
Fishburn and Hughes: A Belgian city and province taken by the Germans in World War I on 25 August 1914. It was also the scene of fighting in World War II. See Zorndorf. Deutsches Requiem
river in the province of Entre Ríos
Fishburn and Hughes: A tributary of the Uruguay river flowing in the rich agricultural lands of southern Entre Ríos province. The Other Death
Nanjing, city in China
Vida psíquica de las plantas, Gustav Theodor Fechner book, 1848
island off Cape Cod in Massachusetts
city and county in California
translator of Gustaf-Janson's Gubben Kommer into English, 1934, and of other works of Scandinavian literature
Parodi: una marca de yerba mate que se vendía envasada en una lata que imitaba un barrilito con una imagen de Napoleón.
French emperor, born in Corsica, 1769-1821
Fishburn and Hughes: France's most famous general, who became Emperor. His military exploits extended French dominion over a large part of Europe, and his ideas were a source of inspiration to the liberation movements of Latin America. In the Romantic imagination Napoleon typified a new spirit of individual freedom and power such as could 'challenge the world and subdue it with his genius'. See Raskolnikov. Funes, His Memory
Louis Napoleon Bonaparte, French emperor, 1808-1873
Emerson essay in Representative Men
town in Japan near Osaka
Silvina Ocampo, short stories for children, 1977.
Maturana poems, 1912
Parodi: un volumen de poesías de José de Maturana (1884-1917), escritor, periodista y dramaturgo argentino, también autor de cuentos, impresiones de viaje y crítica literaria (El balcón de la vida, 1911); en el género teatral, se destacan sus sainetes y dramas en prosa y en verso.
gerontologist, character in Bustos Domecq stories
Parodi: Raúl Narbondo, supuesto médico gerontólogo y cirujano; personaje de “Los inmortales”; tiene su consultorio en el edificio Amianto; es seguidor del club Excursionistas (cf. “Inmortales” §5).
Italian critic, 1891-1973, author of books on Pirandello and D'Annunzio
Japanese poet, 825-80
Hauptmann novel, 1911
Poe novel, 1837-38
Portuguese poet, 1734-1819, better known by his pseudonym of Filinto Elysio
city in Tennessee
Egyptian political leader, 1918-70
Loomis work, 1922, the least popular of his works
Nathan, Biblical prophet
city in Mississippi
Andre Billy, 1938
US essayist and critic, 1882-1958, co-founder and editor of The American Mercury and contributor to Smart Set
James critical work, 1879
Fishburn and Hughes: A learned society, with membership by invitation only, founded in 1893 for the writing of Argentine history. Guayaquil
Fishburn and Hughes: The leading art gallery in Buenos Aires, now the Museo de Bellas Artes. The Duel
Fishburn and Hughes: The National Library is now situated in the old part of Buenos Aires, in Barrio Sur. It was founded as the Public Library on 7 September 1810, immediately after the declaration of Independence. The first Director was Paul Groussac, a French scholar much admired by Borges. Borges's appointment to the directorship in 1955 came at a time when his eyesight was failing, an event poignantly remembered in 'Poem of the Gifts' (Sel. Poems 129). The library houses three copies of every book published in Argentina, and any related work published abroad. Of its 650,000 volumes, Borges remarked: 'It's almost infinity, isn't it?' The building is an imposing edifice, but in almost total decay. The Elderly Lady
Wright novel, 1940
Seneca book on natural phenomena, written c. 63 A.D.
personification of nature
Pliny the Elder's vast compilation in 37 books of information and misinformation about geography and the natural world, 77 A.D.
Antonio Dionisio Lussich's Book (1893). An personal account of the most famous shipwrecks.
Fischart translation of Rabelais, 1575
stock character in Argentine melodramas
region of northern Spain
Spanish historian and hydrographer, 1765-1844, author of a 5 vol. work on Spanish voyages of discovery
town in province of Buenos Aires
Argentine journalist and editor, friend of José Hernández
Portuguese writer, part of the Presença group
story of Brendan's sea-voyage
water nymphs in Greek mythology
Nazareth, city in Israel
Jesus Christ, see also Jesucristo
Fishburn and Hughes: From a letter written by Leibniz in January 1692 to Simon Foucher (1644-1696), a philosopher who applied the Cartesian method of doubt in the quest for truth. The letter stresses the need to illustrate the working of all accepted 'axioms' to further the progress of science. In particular Leibniz asserts the axiom that 'nature does not make jumps', from which it follows that all matter is infinitely divisible. With regard to motion, Leibniz agrees with Foucher that all space is infinitely divisible and adds that infinitely divisible space exists in a time which is also infinitely divisible. In the contest with the tortoise, Achilles need not Tear the tortoise': the total time (and total distance) necessary for Achilles to catch up with the tortoise can be expressed as the sum of an infinite geometric progression in which each term is smaller than the previous one. While the number of terms is infinite, because the terms become infinitely small, their sum is a finite quantity. At that point Achilles reaches, and begins to overtake, the tortoise. This provides a mathematical resolution of Zeno's famous paradox. The ideas expanded in this letter reflect Leibniz's earlier work on the infinitesimal calculus. Pierre Menard, Author of the Quixote
state in the United States
Spanish Renaissance humanist, 1442-1522
German scholar of Icelandic literature, 1878-1940, author of Thule: Altnordische Dichtung, Kultur des alten Germanen and other works
town on the Atlantic coast of the province of Buenos Aires
Parodi: ciudad ubicada en la costa atlántica a unos 500 km al sur de Buenos Aires. Posee un importante puerto que comparte con la ciudad de Quequén, fundada en 1854, con anterioridad a Necochea, a la que está unida por varios puentes. A principios de siglo XX, Quequén se convirtió en uno de los lugares de veraneo preferido por la aristocracia argentina, siendo el viejo Hotel Victoria el lugar donde funcionó el primer casino del país, inaugurado en 1892. En Quequén pasaron vacaciones Bioy, Silvina Ocampo y Borges; algunas partes de Modelo y de cuentos de Bustos Domecq fueron escritos allí; la novela Los que aman, odian, de Bioy y Ocampo, está ambientada en las proximidades de Quequén.
Argentine general in the independence wars, 1791-1849
Excerpt from Confucianism and its Rivals, 1915, by Herbert Allen Giles.
ranch in Bustos Domecq story
Langston Hughes poem
Uruguayan newspaper founded by Washington Bermúdez where Lussich published some poetry, here one of the "numbers" in Funes's system
Lugones poem in Romancero
river that crosses central Uruguay from east to west
policeman, character in Borges-Bioy filmscript
character in Bustos Domecq story
Parodi: novia del narrador, escucha en silencio la narración de la fiesta.
characters in Borges story, see Nilsen
British admiral, 1758-1805
Portuguese writer, 1901-1978
character in Bustos Domecq stories
Parodi: ebanista, tiene su taller en el Once. El apellido de este personaje era popular en el barrio por ser el del propietario de una de las tres tiendas de comestibles “Nemirowsky, Bruselowsky y Szmedra”, la ubicada en la esquina de Corrientes y Pasteur. Estos almacenes estaban especializados en la venta de productos típicos de la cocina judía.
character in Verne novel Vingt mille lieues sous les mers, here a pseudonym of Gomensoro
Parodi: “seudónimo de Alférez Nemo, con alusión que no todos captaron, a Julio Verne.”: el pseudónimo proviene del Capitán Nemo, comandante del submarino Nautilus, personaje de dos novelas del escritor francés Julio Verne (1828-1905): Veinte mil leguas de viaje submarino (1870) y La isla misteriosa (1874). En el cuento de Bustos, el ficticio capitán es degradado a ‘alférez’.
legendary Chaldean king
Carriego poem, published posthumously
Guido y Spano poem
Parodi: “Nenia” es un poema del escritor y periodista argentino Carlos Guido y Spano (1827-1918), acerca del cual comenta Bioy en Descanso 470: “Borges, que no admiraba a Guido Spano, solía recitar con agrado la estrofa de “Nenia”: Por qué cielos no morí […]”.
Neoptolemus, son of Achilles in Greek legend and literature
"las colombinas del Neptunia”. Beginning in 1930, the “Club Neptunia” of Gualeguaychú, Entre Ríos, was famous for its swimming and rowing competitions in the river. The “colombinas” may refer to the swimming women. (Mentioned in Bustos Domecq story.)
Parodi: “las walkirias del Ruderverein contra las colombinas del Neptunia”: las asociaciones mencionadas son dos existentes clubes de remo; el primero, el ‘Ruderverein Teutonia’, es un club privado alemán fundado en 1890, que sigue en actividad en la zona del Delta del Paraná, sobre la ribera del río Luján. El segundo, el Club Neptunia, fue fundado en 1935 en la ciudad de Gualeguaychú, en la provincia de Entre Ríos, y continúa organizando travesías y competiciones náuticas en el río Gualeguaychú.
Roman god of water, identified with Greek god Poseidon
the planet Neptune
Nero Claudius Caesar, Roman emperor, 37-68
British earth goddess, according to Tacitus
pseud. of Neftali Ricardo Reyes, Chilean poet, 1904-73, author of Residencia en la tierra, Canto general and numerous other works
Pseudonym of Gérard Labrunie, French poet, 1808-1855
Mexican poet, 1870-1919, died in Montevideo
monsters in Flaubert and the Arabian Nights
in Iliad, a sage adviser
town in Germany
Deussen treatise, 1920
Austrian scholar, 1865-1915, translator of the Pali canon of Buddhist scriptures
city, river and province in southern Argentina
state in United States
Arvede Barine, 1898
former name for New York City
Stevenson novellas, 1882, consisting of The Suicide Club and The Rajah's Diamond
Malcolm Grant reply to J. W. Dunne, 1934
Bacon treatise of political philosophy, cast as a fable, 1626
sometimes Nueva Inglaterra
state in United States
May Sinclair, 1922
May Sinclair essay, 1922
J. W. Dunne book, 1938
state in United States
Wilkie Collins, 1873.
F. Emerson Andrews book on duodecimal arithmetic, 1935
Masters poems, 1924
Work, 1927, attributed in the Antología de la literatura fantástica to Holloway Horn.
state in United States
university in New York City
weekly magazine, founded in 1925
city in New Jersey
city in northern England
English writer and translator, 1805-97, brother of Cardinal Newman, engaged in debate about translation with Matthew Arnold
US mathematician and historian of mathematics, 1907-1966, co-author of Mathematics and the Imagination
English churchman, Catholic cardinal and writer, 1801-90, author of Essay on Miracles, Apologia pro Vita Sua, Arians of the Fourth Century
character in James's The Ambassadors
character in James's The Ambassadors
English mathematician and physicist, 1642-1727, author of the Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica or Principia
Fishburn and Hughes: An English mathematician and philosopher, author of the Principia (1687). Newton's most important discoveries include the principle of universal gravitation and planetary motion, his original calculations being based on the invariable time of the moon's orbit. CF 127: with regard to space and time, Newton held that both exist in absolute as 'containers of infinite extension and duration' in which people, objects and events have their position. The Garden of Forking Paths
Henry Miller novel, 1960, part of the Rosy Crucifixion
Argentine writer, author of a book on Ernesto Sabato
falls near Buffalo, New York
Middle High German heroic epic poem on Siegfried, written in Austria c. 1200-1210
Nigelungen, evil family possessing a magic hoard of gold in Germanic myth and literature
Fishburn and Hughes: In the Norse sagas and German legend, a race of dwarfs named after Nibelung, their king. They become the possessors of the golden treasure that brings about the downfall of their people and their gods. Borges wrote on the Song of the Nibelungs in Lit. germ., 89-97. See Fafnir. The Zahir; Ibn-Hakam al-Bokhari, Murdered in His Labrynth
character in Borges-Bioy filmscript
street in Buenos Aires
city in southern France
ancient city of Asia Minor, now Isnik in Turkey
British naturalist, author of Birds and Men, 1951
British general in India, 1822-57
Fishburn and Hughes: see Delhi
Werfel novel, 1920
probably typographical error for Nicomedia, ancient bishopric, now Izmit in Turkey
early Christian theologian
Nikolaus von Cues or Cusanus, German humanist, scientist, statesman and philosopher, 1401-1464, author of De reparatione Calendarii
character in Don Quijote
Pérez Zelaschi, novel, 1981.
British theater scholar, 1894-1976, author of Film and Theatre, 1937
English biographer, historian and diplomat, 1886-1968
Danish-born German historian, 1776-1831
German scholar of Icelandic sagas, author of Islands Kultur zur Wikingerzeit, 1913, and numerous other works
character in Borges story
here used as an example of a German-Jewish surname
Uruguayan poet, novelist and critic, 1897-1935, character in Bustos Domecq story, author of Brisas de Fray Bentos, Panica llanura and numerous other works
Parodi: (¿1897-1935?), supuesto escritor uruguayo, autor de poemas, dos monografías, una novela histórica, una miscelánea y varias traducciones. Publica además manuscritos, que imprime la Editorial Probeta (cf. “Toros” i §2); en Las Brisas de Fray Bentos (cf. infra §12) aparece la segunda versión de un alejandrino, cuya forma definitiva se publica en la Antología de seis poetas latinoamericanos (cf. infra §14). Hombre de vasta cultura, Souza frecuentó cenáculos en París y conoció varias lenguas. Escribió lo esencial de su obra en Fray Bentos, donde se conservaba una “nutrida” biblioteca.
title story in Melián Lafinur book
German philosopher, 1844-1900, author of Also Sprach Zarathustra, Die Geburt der Tragödie aus dem Geiste der Musik, Der Wanderer und sein Schatten, Der Wille zur Macht, Ecce homo and other works
Fishburn and Hughes: A German philosopher whose belief that absolute truth is a philosophical invention had a marked influence on Borges. Nietzsche's writings must be understood against the background of the extreme physical suffering he endured which led eventually to his insanity. His philosophy is neither systematic nor expounded in a systematic form, but can be seen as a collection of different points of view reflecting the growing disintegration of his mind. In The Birth of Tragedy (1872) he changed traditional perceptions of classical culture as expounded by Goethe. He highlighted the irrational or Dionysian streak which, he maintained, had coexisted with the more restrained Apollonian element. In Beyond Good and Evil (1886) he developed the idea of the Übermensch ('overman') as the person who has organised the chaos of his passions, achieved a distinctive individuality and become creative. The term has been popularly misconceived: it was not intended in a Darwinian sense ('superman' is a bad translation), but as implying a desire to reach out beyond one's condition. Life for Nietzsche was not a wretched stuggle for existence but a positive and dynamic striving for power. He revolted against Christianity, which he came to see as an enfeebled religion of comfort, and he preached a new master morality, inciting the Übermensch to trample underfoot the servile herd of the weak. He cited the sprouting plant and the babe in the womb as evidence of this natural will to grow, declaring that creation necessarily involves destruction, since life is always at the expense of other life. Thus he saw pity in negative terms, as based on sentimental morality, admiring instead Schopenhauer's ideas of courage and destruction in pursuit of the realisation of one's own self. He regarded suffering, cruelty, dissimulation and revenge as virtues which developed strength and integrity. Speaking of the Übermensch, he wrote: 'We must be hard against ourselves and overcome ourselves; we must become creators instead of remaining mere creatures.' He considered Goethe the model of the Übermensch. Some of Nietzsche's coinage and epigrammatic sayings glorifying courage were taken out of context by the Nazis and used to support the ideology of the master-race. CF 93: refers to this misreading of Nietzsche's conception of power in militaristic terms. See Zarathustra. Pierre Menard, Author of the Quixote; Deutsches Requiem
from the context, someone associated with Peronism
the land of the dead in the Nibelungenlied
Icelandic name for Nibelungen
Conrad novel, 1898
Woolf novel, 1919
Noche en una taberna, Dunsany one-act play, 1911
Carter Dickson, novel, 1950.
Bromfield novel, 1940
Al caer la noche, Karel Reisz film with Albert Finney, 1964
Fishburn and Hughes: In Arabic, Laylat al-Qadr, 'night of density', 'night of majesty': a night towards the end of Ramadan, the month of fasting, believed to be a holy night in which the Koran descended from heaven via the angel Gabriel. On this night the gates of the heavens open, angels descend to bring greetings to mankind and all prayers are answered - even salt water is believed to become sweet: 'Better is the Night of Qadr than a thousand months' (Sura 97:3). The Garden of Forking Paths: the one night 'at the middle of the Thousand and One Nights refers to 'the story of the king and his son and the damsel and the seven wezeers'. This, the framework story of a cluster of tales reflecting the original framework story of the entire book, concerns the skilful telling of tales to delay an execution. According to Lane, it starts at Night 567, ending with part of Night 606, and tells of a king who was enraged with jealousy when his favourite concubine alleged that his son had tried to seduce her. He gave orders to his Wezeers to put his son to death, but they, fearing that he would afterwards repent and blame them for not having dissuaded him, tried to divert him from his purpose by relating numerous tales. A similar story is told by Burton concerning a demon, or Ifrit, in Night 602. Borges alludes to this night of self-revelation when the king hears his own story related in one of Scheherazade's tales as 'magic among nights', and speculates on the unlimited possibilities of such interpolated repetitions (see Other Inq. 45). Tlon, Uqbar, Orbis Tertius; The Garden of Forking Paths
Warren novel, 1938
"The Complaint, or Night Thoughts on Life, Death, and Immortality," Young poem, 1742-45
restaurant in New York City, perhaps a reference to the Edward Hopper painting
English nurse, 1820-1910, famous for her work during the Crimean War
Whelan film, 1942
reference to Chesterton's poem The Red Sea
place in Japan, perhaps Nihommatsu or Nihongi
city in Russia
four collections of the Buddha's sayings, which together form the Sutta Pitaka or Basket of Discourses, a division of Buddhist canonical books
Autobiografia del Nilo, Emil Ludwig work in two volumes, 1935-1937
Fishburn and Hughes: The Nilotic Sudan, an area along the Nile south of Egypt approximately equivalent to ancient Nubia. Its inhabitants are east central African tribes forming a distinct ethnic and linguistic group. Ibn-Hakam al-Bokhari, Murdered in His Labyrinth
character in Borges story
character in Borges story
character in Borges story
city in southern France
Fishburn and Hughes: A French provincial town in the Gard, famous for its Roman antiquities. 'Nîmes, 1939': this reference at the end of the story to the place and date of its writing is part of the fiction. The story was written in Buenos Aires in 1938, when Borges was recovering from a serious illness. The English version omits this point. Pierre Menard, Author of the Quixote
Alvaro Melián Lafinur story
Kemelman, short story.
Dos Passos novel, 1932
nymphs in Greek mythology
book by Esguerra Barry and others
orphanage in Buenos Aires
Herrera y Reissig poem in Los parques abandonados, 1909
Parodi: El autor de “Nirvana crepuscular”, es el poeta Julio Herrera y Reissig (cf. “Paladión” §3).
British writer, 1897-1987
province of Iran, in northern Khorasan, and the capital city of province
Fishburn and Hughes: The most important of the four great cities in Khurasan, one of the great towns of Iran in the Middle Ages. Nishapur was subject to many changes of ruler and to repeated attacks; the sack referred to in CF 36 was that of 1221 at the hands of the Mongols under Genghis Khan. The tomb of Omar Khayyam is located in the outskirts of the town. Nishapur is also the native town of the Persian poet Farid al-Din Attar, author of Parliament of Birds. The Shape of the Sword; The Approach to Al-Mu’tasim
in Anglo-Saxon poem, enemy of Welund
Nittur, city in Mysore state, India
ancient monastery in the Wadi Natron in Egypt
Fishburn and Hughes: An ancient valley in Libya near the Nile delta where flourished the cult of Serapis to whom sheep were sacrificed. In the fourth century a Christian monastery was founded in Nitria by Amun (c.320). Its monks lived in clusters of windowless cells and practised extreme asceticism. In 399 Amun and three other monks, who became known as the Tall Brothers, left the monastery for Alexandria to support the movement started by Origen and from there proceeded to Constantinople to defend his ideas. The Theologians
US gangster, henchman of Al Capone, known as "the Enforcer," 1888-1943
According to the Antología de la literatura fantástica, Chinese writer from the IX century.
region in Burgundy, France, former name of a province
vizier of the Seljuk sultan Alp Arslan, childhood friend of Omar Khayyam and Hassan ibn Sabbah
hero of Icelandic saga Njals Saga
famous Icelandic family saga, story of the burning of the lawyer Njal and his family by his enemies, late 13th century
David Garnett novel, 1929
Wilkie Collins, 1862.
Fishburn and Hughes: A popular Spanish saying meaning that one should not go looking for trouble. The more usual version is 'No need to look for five legs', but there are precedents for Borges's version, notably in Don Quixote (pt.1, ch. 13 and pt.2, ch. 10). Death and the Compass
Fishburn and Hughes: CF 194: The reference to 'No One' as Ulysses (Odysseus) stems from an episode in the Odyssey (book 9). Trapped in the cave of the Cyclops, who is eating his companions one by one, Ulysses offers the giant some wine and tells him that his name is 'No One'. When the Cyclops is in a drunken sleep, he blinds him. The next morning, after the prisoners have escaped, the Cyclops cries out to his companions that 'no one' has tricked him and put out his eye. They therefore leave him alone. Once safely back on his ship, Ulysses shouts his real name across the waters. The Inmortal
Work by Macedonio Fernández, 1928.
Barón de la Roche poem
line from Shakespeare's sonnet 123
Argentine painter and writer
Annual International Award granted by the Swedish Academy.
Swedish chemist,inventor of dynamite and founder of Nobel prizes, 1833-1896
pseudonymous author of novel in Séptimo círculo series
Portuguese poet, 1867-1900, author of Só
personification of night
Borges poem in El otro, el mismo
Saldias tango, 1913
Borges story in El libro de arena
Borges translation of Alfred Vagts poem
San Juan de la Cruz poem
Borges poem in Cuaderno San Martín
Manuel Peyrou book, 1953
Rafael Alberto Arrieta book, 1917
Noches en primavera, Otokar Brezina poem in the collection Ruce (Manos)
Aulus Gellius miscellany, published c.180
Fernández Peña painting
Jules Supervielle poem
Parodi: “Vanitas, Los Adelantos del Progreso, La Patria Azul y Blanca, A Ella, Nocturnos”: títulos de algunas composiciones de Bustos Domecq supuestamente publicadas en diarios de Rosario en 1907, cuando apenas tenía catorce años. El empleo del término ‘composiciones’, que en el ámbito escolar designa un escrito en que el alumno desarrolla un tema en general elegido por el maestro, insinúa que estas obras de Bustos son redacciones escolares, muy probablemente realizadas bajo la dirección de la señorita Badoglio.
Noah in Bible, chosen by God to save representative animals and the human race from the flood
Argentine critic, 1893-1983, editor of an anthology of Argentine poetry
Navidad, Alain epigrams about Christmas
character in Borges story
character in Borges story
French historian, art historian and poet, 1859-1936
Silvina Ocampo’s book of poetry, 1953.
Dowson poem, 1896
Bonavena novel in 6 vols., the last published posthumously in 1939
hotel in Borges story "La muerte y la brujula," based on the Edificio Kavanagh
Hungarian writer and physician, 1849-1923, author of Entartung
Herrmann study, 1903
character in Cansinos Assens novel based on Max Nordau
Fishburn and Hughes: There is no reference, in copies of La Prensa of January 1922, to either a mail or cargo boat of that name sailing out of Buenos Aires. Maritime trade between Argentina and Scandinavia, however, was not uncommon. Emma Zunz
university city in Oklahoma
in Scandinavian mythology, the Furies
Ribeiro Couto poems, 1932
US novelist and essayist, 1870-1902, author of McTeague and other works
English clergyman and philosopher, 1657-1711, author of An Essay Towards the Theory of an Idea and Intelligible World
state in United States, sometimes Carolina del Norte
Frost book of poems, 1914
Alfred Charles William Harmsworth, 1st Viscount Northcliffe, British newspaper magnate, 1865-1922, Director of Propaganda for the United Kingdom during the First World War
hotel in York, England
Northumbria, northern county of England
old Norse name for Gibraltar
city and county in England
Argentine literary magazine, 1907-1934
Parodi: Nosotros. Revista mensual de Letras, Arte, Historia, Filosofía y Ciencias Sociales fue una importante revista literaria publicada en dos ‘épocas’: entre 1907 y 1934 aparecieron 300 números; de 1936 a 1943, 90 números. Sus fundadores y directores fueron Roberto Giusti y Alfredo Bianchi (cf. infra). Borges publicó en Nosotros: “Las coplas acriolladas”, “La fundación mitológica de Buenos Aires”, “Arrabal en que pesa el campo”, “Elegía de Palermo” (1926), “Groussac” (1929); también algunos poemas ultraístas.
Frieda Lawrence book, 1934
line from Shakespeare's sonnet 107
Not one but all things attributed by tradition to Judas Iscariot are false ('No una cosa, todas las cosas que la tradición atribuye a Judas Iscariote son falsas')
Fishburn and Hughes: A quotation from De Quincey on Judas Iscariot in Speculative and Theological Essays (1857). The argument of the essay is, in De Quincey's words, based on speculations 'first broached by German theologians and by Archbishop Whateley'. The text reads: 'Not one thing but all things must rank as false which traditionally we accept about him' (Writings, ed. David Mason, vol.8, 177). Judas believed that 'Christ contemplated a temporal kingdom' and the liberation of his people from the Roman authorities. Therefore it was important that Christ should be forced into action by an outsider and should commit himself without hesitation. According to De Quincey, Judas believed he was fulfilling his master's innermost purpose by denouncing him, thinking that Christ's arrest would arouse all the people of Jerusalem. The essay concludes with a disquisition on the death of Judas, of which we have two different reports, one in Matthew and the other in the Acts of the Apostles, adding that the Church is left to explain the contradictions of this 'memorable domestic tragedy'. Three Versions of Judas
Saki’s work, 1902.
Anthony Berkeley crime novel, 1937
Langston Hughes novel, 1930
part owner of the Sastrería Funcional, in Bustos Domecq story
Compilation of biographical notes published in Efemérides Americanas in the newspaper "La Nación"
Samuel Butler, 1917.
Jean Guéhenno article
Dunne treatise on time, 1940
German monk and scholar, teacher at St. Gall, c. 950-1022, author of a rhetoric and translator of Aristotle, Boethius etc.
Novel by Guy de Maupassant (1890).
Nuestro pan cotidiano, Pierre Hamp, 1937
revised version of Larousse encyclopedia, 1897-1904
Collection of short stories by Villiers de L'Isle-Adam, 1888.
Leibniz essays, published posthumously in 1765
French literary magazine, 1908-43, 1953- , often known as the NRF
Talvart and Boucher literary geography of France
collection of aphorisms by Manuel Bernardes, 1759
pseud. of Friederich von Hardenberg, German poet, 1772-1801, author of Hymnen an die Nacht and other works
Fishburn and Hughes: The pseudonym of Friedrich von Hardenberg, a mystical German Romantic poet and novelist. In Heinrich von Ofterdinger (1802, posthumously) Novalis presents in terms of a medieval allegory the message that the true meaning of the world, the poet's 'blue flower', is to be sought within oneself. The Fragments is a collection of aphorisms expressing the new Romantic theory. In number 2005 of the Dresden edition Novalis writes: 'I demonstrate that I have really understood a writer only when I am able to act in the spirit of his thoughts, and when I can translate his works and alter them in various ways without detracting from his individuality.' This belief in the essential presence of an author in his text contrasts with Pierre Menard's claim to be able 'to reach the Quixote' through his own experience, thus dispensing with the original authorial voice. Pierre Menard, Author of the Quixote
Carlyle essay in Critical and Miscellaneous Essays
Mexican film actor, born Ramón Samaniegos, 1899-1968
Argentine writer, 1908-95
knife-fighter in Buenos Aires
Camilo Castelho Branco novellas, 1875-77
Cervantes short novels, 1613
Novel by Ramón Gómez de la Serna, 1923.
Emecé´s series of novels.
Bandello collection of tragic stories, c.1550
Excerpt from Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire by Gibbon.
city in Russia, which Norsemen called Holmgard
anthology of Portuguese poetry, 1941
Mexican poet and chronicler, 1904-74
Miguel Torga short story collection
Rapper film, 1942
editor of the works of Christopher Smart with Edward Ainsworth, 1943
French woman, famed for poisoning her family
Brandán Caraffa book
region of northeast Africa
Fishburn and Hughes: An ancient region in north-east Africa, extending from the Nile Valley to the Red Sea. Ibn-Hakam al-Bokhari, Murdered in His Labyrinth
Carlos Octavio Bunge book, 1903
Costa Álvarez study, 1922
Borges essay in the first edition of Discusion
Alfredo Taullard, 1927
reference to a place in Buenos Aires in satirical text
Borges essay on Vlady Kociancich, published as a pamphlet, Ediciones Olivetti, 1970
New Orleans, city in Louisiana
Borges essay in Otras inquisiciones
Bioy Casares, novel, 1935.
New York City
Borges essay published in El Hogar in 1937, later included in book Leopoldo Lugones
hotel in Bustos Domecq and Suárez Lynch stories
Parodi: 1) supuestamente ubicado en la calle Cangallo al 3400, en el barrio del Once (cf. infra §11), a una cuadra y media de la Plaza Once (“Tai An” i §10), este hotel es mencionado tanto en la obra de Bustos como en la de Suárez Lynch. Aparece en Seis problemas (“Limardo”, “Tai An”); en el prólogo a Modelo; en Crónicas (“Ojo”, “Inmortales”); en Nuevos cuentos (“Enemigo”, “Salvación”). La administración del establecimiento está a cargo de Vicente Renovales, de Claudio Zarlenga y de su esposa, Juana Musante, única mujer admitida en el lugar. La estructura del edificio del hotel es la típica de los conventillos (‘casas de inquilinato’) de Buenos Aires: grandes viviendas de la zona sur de la ciudad que, con la llegada de los inmigrantes, fueron subdivididas y alquiladas como habitaciones a familias o individuos, en condiciones de hacinamiento, compartiendo baños, comedor y cocina entre muchas personas. El Nuevo Imparcial acoge diversas categorías de huéspedes, clasificados según el tipo de habitación que ocupan y el precio que pagan: los “millonarios” o “magnates” de la sala larga, la más cara y suntuosa, ubicada en el primer patio; les siguen los que ocupan el cuarto de las cuchetas, en el segundo patio; el “elemento farrista” vive en la pieza del altillo; en el tercer patio, están la “piecita del fondo”, el excusado y el gallinero; en caso de necesidad, también el “depósito de escobas y enseres de limpieza”, debajo de la escalera, podía transformarse en habitación. El edificio cuenta además con el escritorio de Renovales y un comedor donde reina el cocinero, que impone disciplina a los pensionistas. Ocasionalmente, también Bustos se aloja en El Nuevo Imparcial (cf. “Inmortales” §16; “Enemigo” §25); allí recoge la información para escribir el cuento sobre Tadeo Limardo (“Ojo” §6).
2) “me instalé en el Nuevo Imparcial, hotel a cuadra y media del Once”: hotel ya conocido por Bustos; es el escenario de los sucesos de “La víctima de Tadeo Limardo” (cf. “Limardo” i §3). Para el barrio de Once, cf. “Limardo” i §11. En una nota al pie, Bustos agrega lo que califica de “dato importante” y en realidad es un anuncio publicitario para promover la venta de sus propias obras, en este caso, de Seis problemas. Es la primera vez en su obra que Bustos recurre a esta estrategia comercial, pero no la última: en la crónica “Ese polifacético: Vilaseco” y en el nuevo cuento “El enemigo número 1 de la censura” insiste en el mismo recurso y en sendas notas al pie insta a los lectores a adquirir las Crónicas y el cuento “El hijo de su amigo”, respectivamente. Cf. también “Vestuario II” §3.
state of New Mexico
Americas, Western Hemisphere
restaurant on Godoy Cruz in Buenos Aires, in Bustos Domecq story
Parodi: el “Nuevo Parmesano de Godoy Cruz”: supuesto restaurante ubicado en la calle Godoy Cruz, en el barrio de Palermo.
New Testament in Bible
Lugones essays, 1928
George Moore poem in French
Uruguayan literary periodical, 1949-1964
ancient name for region of northern Africa, now Algeria and Tunisia
here, papal nuncio in Argentina
Parodi: “me franquearon las puertas de la Maffia, como si me respaldara el Nuncio”: acerca de esta alusión de Bustos al Nuncio apostólico, es decir, el representante diplomático del Papa ante el gobierno argentino, cf. Modelo v §59.
neighborhood of northern Buenos Aires
Parodi: Núñez es un barrio de Buenos Aires ubicado al noreste de la ciudad, sobre el Río de la Plata.
landowners in Chacabuco in Borges story
Spanish explorer (1488/1490 – 1557/1558)
Spanish poet, playwright and journalist, 1832-1903
Parodi: Gaspar Núñez de Arce (1834-1903) escritor, periodista y político español; ocupó diversos cargos públicos y fue nombrado Académico de la lengua en 1874. Es autor de poesías, teatro y narrativa.
city in Bavaria, Germany, also called Nurnberg
Finnish track star, 1897-1973
Parodi: “A inquinoso, le corro a Paavo Nurmi, con sobretodo puesto”: durante la década de 1920, el atleta finlandés Paavo Nurmi (1897-1973) fue el mejor fondista y mediofondista del mundo; entre 1920 y 1928, obtuvo nueve medallas de oro en Juegos Olímpicos. ‘Sobretodo’ alude al abrigo masculino que se lleva sobre las demás prendas. El sustantivo ‘inquinoso’ es un neologismo formado según el modelo de ‘envidioso’.