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University of Pittsburgh



Victoria Ocampo begins publishing Sur. Initially Borges publishes mostly film and book reviews in the magazine, but later it will publish some of his most important stories and essays.


Borges continues to live at Calle Quintana 222, Buenos Aires.

Historical Context

The Radical Party wins the elections in the Province of Buenos Aires and Uriburu‚Äôs administration annuls them. Creation of the ‚ÄúGeneral Directorate of Tax Collection‚ÄĚ (DGI) and establishment of the income tax. Professionalization of football. General Agust√≠n P. Justo elected president.       

Periodical Publications

  • La supersticiosa √©tica del lector. Azul [Azul, Province of Buenos Aires] 2.8 (January 1931), pp. 11-14. [Essay included in Discusi√≥n.]
  • El coronel Ascasubi. Sur 1 (1931), pp. 128-40. [Essay included in "La poes√≠a gauchesca" in Discusi√≥n.]
  • S√©neca en las orillasSur 1 (1931), pp. 174-79. [Essay included as "Las inscripciones de los carros" in Evaristo Carriego.] 
  • El Mart√≠n FierroSur 2 (1931), pp. 134-35. [Essay included in "La poes√≠a gauchesca" in Discusi√≥n.]
  • Tres poemas de Langston HughesSur 2 (1931), pp. 164-69. [Translations of "I Too," "Our Land" and "The Negro Speaks of Rivers." Included in Borges en Sur, pp. 83-85.]]
  • La supersticiosa √©tica del lector. Azul 2.8 (January-February 1931), pp. 11-14. [Essay included in Discusi√≥n.]
  • Estornudos literarios. Monterrey 8 (March 1932). [Letter from Borges to Alfonso Reyes, included in Textos recobrados 1931-1955, pp. 22-23.] 
  • La postulaci√≥n de la realidad. Azul 2.10 (June 1931), pp. 13-18. [Essay included in Discusi√≥n.]
  • Tres poemas de Edgar Lee Masters. Sur 3 (1931), pp. 132-37. [Translations of "Anne Rutledge," "Petit, the Poet" and "Chandler Nicholas." Included in Borges en Sur, pp. 83-85.]
  • Films. Sur 3 (1931), pp. 171-73. [Review of The Brothers Karamazov, The Docks of New York, City Lights and Morocco, included in Discusi√≥n.]
  • C√©sar Tiempo: Libro para la pausa del s√°badoArgentina 1.3 (August 1931), p. 24. [Included in Textos recobrados 1931-1955, pp. 15-17.] 
  • Encuestas de "La Raz√≥n": ¬ŅRecuerda Ud. Quien le ense√Īo las primeras letras? La Raz√≥n (31 August 1931), p. 12. [Included in Textos recobrados 1931-1955, pp. 18-19.] 
  • Nuestras imposibilidades. Sur 4 (1931), pp. 131-34. [Essay included in the first edition of Discusi√≥n, and in Borges en Sur, pp. 117-20.]


  • Pr√≥logo. Wally Zenner. Encuentro en el all√° seguro. Buenos Aires: Viau y Zona, 1931. [Included in Textos recobrados 1931-1955, pp. 13-14.] 
  • Pr√≥logo. Paul Val√©ry. El cementerio marino. Trans. N√©stor Ibarra. Buenos Aires: Schillinger, 1931. [Preface included in Pr√≥logos. Some sources give 1932 as the date of publication.]