University of Pittsburgh



Victoria Ocampo begins publishing Sur. Initially Borges publishes mostly film and book reviews in the magazine, but later it will publish some of his most important stories and essays.


Borges continues to live at Calle Quintana 222, Buenos Aires.

Historical Context

The Radical Party wins the elections in the Province of Buenos Aires and Uriburu’s administration annuls them. Creation of the “General Directorate of Tax Collection” (DGI) and establishment of the income tax. Professionalization of football. General Agustín P. Justo elected president.       

Periodical Publications

  • La supersticiosa ética del lector. Azul [Azul, Province of Buenos Aires] 2.8 (January 1931), pp. 11-14. [Essay included in Discusión.]
  • El coronel Ascasubi. Sur 1 (1931), pp. 128-40. [Essay included in "La poesía gauchesca" in Discusión.]
  • Séneca en las orillasSur 1 (1931), pp. 174-79. [Essay included as "Las inscripciones de los carros" in Evaristo Carriego.] 
  • El Martín FierroSur 2 (1931), pp. 134-35. [Essay included in "La poesía gauchesca" in Discusión.]
  • Tres poemas de Langston HughesSur 2 (1931), pp. 164-69. [Translations of "I Too," "Our Land" and "The Negro Speaks of Rivers." Included in Borges en Sur, pp. 83-85.]]
  • La supersticiosa ética del lector. Azul 2.8 (January-February 1931), pp. 11-14. [Essay included in Discusión.]
  • Estornudos literarios. Monterrey 8 (March 1932). [Letter from Borges to Alfonso Reyes, included in Textos recobrados 1931-1955, pp. 22-23.] 
  • La postulación de la realidad. Azul 2.10 (June 1931), pp. 13-18. [Essay included in Discusión.]
  • Tres poemas de Edgar Lee Masters. Sur 3 (1931), pp. 132-37. [Translations of "Anne Rutledge," "Petit, the Poet" and "Chandler Nicholas." Included in Borges en Sur, pp. 83-85.]
  • Films. Sur 3 (1931), pp. 171-73. [Review of The Brothers Karamazov, The Docks of New York, City Lights and Morocco, included in Discusión.]
  • César Tiempo: Libro para la pausa del sábadoArgentina 1.3 (August 1931), p. 24. [Included in Textos recobrados 1931-1955, pp. 15-17.] 
  • Encuestas de "La Razón": ¿Recuerda Ud. Quien le enseño las primeras letras? La Razón (31 August 1931), p. 12. [Included in Textos recobrados 1931-1955, pp. 18-19.] 
  • Nuestras imposibilidades. Sur 4 (1931), pp. 131-34. [Essay included in the first edition of Discusión, and in Borges en Sur, pp. 117-20.]


  • Prólogo. Wally Zenner. Encuentro en el allá seguro. Buenos Aires: Viau y Zona, 1931. [Included in Textos recobrados 1931-1955, pp. 13-14.] 
  • Prólogo. Paul Valéry. El cementerio marino. Trans. Néstor Ibarra. Buenos Aires: Schillinger, 1931. [Preface included in Prólogos. Some sources give 1932 as the date of publication.]